New - Masonry wall design to US codes

Tekla Structural Designer
2024
Tekla Structural Designer

New - Masonry wall design to US codes

Newly introduced in Tekla Structural Designer 2024 - integration with Tekla Tedds has been enhanced.

For the US regional code, Tekla Tedds can now be used to automatically define masonry material and analytical properties, as well as to perform the design of the masonry wall sections.

In the first release there is no particular consideration in modeling, analysis or design, for any other type of masonry wall other than single pane, in-plane loaded masonry walls (typically internal).

Note:

In order to use this feature:

  1. A Tekla Tedds license is required.
  2. Tedds 2024 must be installed, (this version is now available for download from Tekla Downloads).

For full details of this feature see the Help Topic Masonry wall design handbook. Below we give some brief information about some key new settings and basic workflow of the new feature.

Masonry Wall Modeling & Analysis

It is now possible to quickly and easily model and analyze masonry walls using the new material type and modeling options added in this release:

  • Masonry Material - A new “Masonry” Material type is added to the Materials Database (all Regional codes*).

    • United States Regional code - there are a number of grades already added to the database in this release, as shown in the picture below.
      • Furthermore, new masonry grades can easily be added using the convenient new “Define using Tedds” option in the Add grade dialog. When this is selected the Tedds Masonry wall section design > Construction details dialog opens allowing you to easily specify the unit type, materials and dimensions etc from convenient drop lists just as in the main Tedds calculation.

    • *All other Regional codes - there are no already added grades, however any number of user-defined grades can be added by manual input of the required properties, as for other material grades.

  • Modeling - Masonry walls are modeled in the same manner as existing meshed concrete and general walls using the new “Masonry Meshed” wall option on the Model ribbon as shown below (all Regional codes).

  • Modification Factors - a new set of Modification Factors specific to Masonry Material is added with factors for masonry walls for both cracked and uncracked states (all Regional codes):

  • Analysis Properties - the analysis properties for masonry walls are set as follows depending on the Regional code:

    • United States Regional code - in the case of walls modeled using Tedds defined masonry grades, the Orthotropic analysis setting can optionally be enabled for Fully grouted walls or is automatically enabled and fixed for the other grout options, as illustrated in the picture below. For more about the settings for and behavior of Orthotropic walls see Orthotropic walls and Orthotropic wall implementation.

      • Calculation - New in this release for masonry walls set to Orthotropic is the option “Apply section adjustment factors” - this is the default and recommended option for masonry walls. With this enabled, initially no orthotropic properties are displayed. At the start of the analytical process, an average density and adjusted orthotropic factors will be calculated if required for the wall using the properties and relationships prescribed in TMS 402/602.1 The calculated properties are then displayed in the Properties window after the analysis, as shown in the picture below.

    • Other Regional codes - the Orthotropic option can be enabled if desired with the Calculation options being either “No calculation” or “Apply X and Y factors” - for more on these settings see Orthotropic walls.

    • Note also the option to “Apply modification factors” (as mentioned above) which is enabled by default.

      1Building Code Requirements and Specification for Masonry Structures (TMS 402/602-22, TMS 402/602-16, TMS MSJC-13)

Design Workflow

Further expanding the scope of Design using Tekla Tedds, masonry walls can also be designed using Tekla Tedds in this release for the United States Regional code. The workflow is broadly similar to that implemented in previous releases for design using Tekla Tedds of Wood/Timber members (both United States and Eurocode Regional codes) and Precast concrete members (Eurocode).

  • Design Code - first you select the masonry design code from the Model Settings > Design Codes > Resistance codes options as shown in the picture below.

    • The following design code versions are available for both LRFD and ASD methods: MSJC 2013, TMS 402/602 2022, TMS 402/602 2016. Ensure you add/ generate load combinations appropriate to the selected design code.

  • Design Process - following analysis, you can right-click on any wall in the scene view and select “Design using Tekla Tedds'' from the context menu. The Tedds Masonry wall section design calculation (new in Tedds 2024) interface will then appear, populated with the wall geometry and analysis results data from the model as shown below. You can then review the design and make changes/ refinements to the input as required before selecting Finish to complete the design. The design results are stored in the model and the Pass/Fail Status & utilization ratio can be viewed in the usual manner in Review View > Design > Status and via the entity tooltip.

  • There are also options to “Check using Tekla Tedds” (the wall is checked by the Tedds calculation ‘silently’ without showing the interface), “Export to Tekla Tedds” (opens the calculation document for the wall in Tedds) and “Clear the Tedds data” (if you want to manually clear the Tedds calculation data from a previous design run).

  • You can also make a graphical selection of a number of walls then right-click and select any of the Tedds processes described above from the context menu to be applied to the selection.

  • In the Tedds calculation, the analysis results from the model are populated to a number of design cases titled DC1, DC2 etc, which are checks for discrete horizontal sections and load conditions of the wall such as “Bottom: Max axial” etc. Select a design case from the drop list to see its individual design results and click the “Forces…” button to open a dialog showing the sectional design forces populated from the model, as shown in the picture below.
    • Note the option to input an Axial eccentricity (minor axis) value in the Design Forces dialog (see the calculation notes for more on this).

    • The Overall design status for all of the design cases is always shown - regardless of which design case is currently selected - at the bottom of the Preview results at the right of the calculation interface.

  • It is also possible to place horizontal Result Lines in a masonry wall - for example around an opening - and interactively design these using Tekla Tedds. For more about this process see the new Help topic Masonry wall design workflow.
    • Note that, after placing a Result Line in a wall panel and running analysis to obtain results for it, it is necessary to first check the wall using Tekla Tedds to initialize the masonry wall panel data to the Result line(s) - the Result Line context menu Interactive Design > Design using Tekla Tedds option is then enabled, as shown in the picture below.

  • All the Tedds processes discussed above can also be run via the Project Workspace > Structure tree via the context menu for a selected Masonry wall, as shown below. All masonry walls in the model can also be checked (without displaying the calculation interface) in a single process by selecting the “Check in Tedds” command from the Design Ribbon.

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