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# Interactive concrete column design

# Interactive concrete column design

# Opening the Interactive Column Design Dialog

The Interactive Column Design dialog can be opened from any of the 2D or 3D Views as follows:

- Right-click the member you want to design interactively.
- Select
**Interactive Design...**(Static or RSA as required). The Interactive Column Design dialog is displayed. - Click on an individual stack in the Column/stack summary pane.
- Interactively adjust the reinforcement as required for the chosen stack until the design is satisfactory.

# Arranging bars in the Interactive Column Design Dialog

The way in which bars are arranged depends on the column shape.

In circular columns, bars are arranged simply by modifying the bar size and count fields.

In rectangular columns bars are arranged as described below.

Principal bars exist at fixed locations; they are labeled with numbers in the cross-section, as shown above. You can only change the principal bar sizes, not their locations.

Intermediate bars are the unnumbered bars in the cross-section. You can change both their size and number. They are defined in the bar location table by reference to the principal bars between which they lie.

A count of "1" for each intermediate length in the bar location table indicates that a single intermediate bar is positioned between each of the principal bars.

If the count is increased to "2" for Int. length 1-2, but reduced to "0" for Int. length 2-3, the following arrangement is achieved. (Two intermediate bars are positioned between principal bars 1 and 2, but there are now no intermediate bars between principal bars 2 and 3.)

Note that Int. lengths 3-4 and 4-5 are adjusted automatically in the table to match.

Link / Tie arrangements in rectangular and parallelogram sections have the following basic options:

- Single links/ties,
- Double links/ties,
- Triple links/ties,
- Cross links/ties.

Tie bars are used with these arrangements. Link/Tie arrangements in other section shapes use standard link/tie positions with additional tie bars where required.

# Using a 2nd layer of bars

It is sometimes not possible to find a solution using a single-layer of reinforcement - (a problem more common in hi-rise structures with large columns in lower stacks).

Selecting the **Use 2nd layer** option in the interactive design provides you with more flexibility to find a solution in these cases.

A 2nd layer can be applied to rectangular/parallelogram and circular sections.

- At least 2 intermediate bars are needed in each direction

A link is added along the second layer for all 3 section shapes.

When using a 2nd layer, design checks are unchanged, except for the addition of a layer spacing check for circular sections.

# Column interaction diagrams (US customary units)

To visually observe the utilization of the design, interaction diagrams can be drawn for individual columns by accessing the interactive design. There are two types of interaction diagrams: "axial force-moment interaction diagrams" and "moment interaction diagrams".

When the dialog is first opened the moment interaction diagram is displayed for the critical parameters, but you can then view the diagram for any analysis method, combination and position. The "Set Critical" button can be used to return to the critical parameters.

## Column axial force-moment interaction diagram

The column axial force - moment interaction diagram is created by fixing the neutral axis rotation so that the neutral axis is perpendicular to the desired direction of moment resistance and varying the depth of the neutral axis. This is done about four orientations, separated by 90°: positive moment resistance in the y-direction; positive moment resistance in the z-direction; negative moment resistance in the y-direction; negative moment resistance in the z-direction.

This method creates a list of points plotted on the interaction diagram for each rotation. Each direction having two lists: one for positive moment resistance and one for negative moment resistance. The failure envelopes created from two lists referring to moments in the same direction (for positive and negative in that direction) are shown in the same colour, a different colour being used for each of the two directions.

The applied values are plotted for all combinations on the same diagram. The points referring to moments in each of the directions are in the same colour as the failure envelope for that direction. Points for both directions are plotted on the same diagram.

In general, the envelope will only be symmetrical for symmetrically reinforced rectangular and circular sections.

## Column moment interaction diagram

The moment interaction diagram is created for a specific axial force, and is used to show the interaction of the applied moments compared to the moment interaction failure envelope. The failure envelope is created by taking many rotations of neutral axis, and calculating the depth for that rotation and axial force. Moments are then taken about the plastic centroid to calculate the moment resistance in each direction.

The moment interaction diagram is calculated for each combination individually, as it is calculated based on the applied axial force which is typically different for each combination.

The resultant moment (of resistance) angle is zero when creating positive moments about the major axis and no moment about the minor axis. For consistency, the neutral axis rotation is zero when it lies parallel with the major axis with compression above the major axis. The resultant moment angle (both applied and resistance) and neutral axis angle are then measured anti-clockwise from this zero position.

The method and convention is the same for columns and walls. The convention is shown graphically above for a column.

The N.A. rotation is that for the calculated NA depth and at which the ratio of moments of resistance equals that of the applied moments for the applied axial force. The design process for biaxial bending is as follows:

For biaxial bending design the method of checking whether the reinforcement in the section is sufficient is to check whether the bending resistance of the section is larger than the applied moment for a given axial force. Tekla Structural Designer therefore calculates the neutral axis position (rotation and depth) at which the ratio of the moment limits in each direction is equal to the ratio of the applied moments and the resultant axial resistance of the section is equal to the applied axial force.

This is done by calculating the neutral axis depth at which the applied axial force would equal the ultimate axial resistance of the section, and calculating the ultimate moment resistance in each direction for this neutral axis depth.

For this calculation the cross-section shown above is effectively rotated so that the neutral axis depth is horizontal - meaning the corner of the column near bar 4 is at the top and the point near bar 2 is at the bottom. The linear strain distribution between these points is then used to calculate the stress in each bar.

If the ratio of the ultimate moment resistance in each direction is not equal to the applied ratio, then Tekla Structural Designer iterates to find the next neutral axis angle "guess" and re-runs the process.

When the final neutral axis angle has been found, the program compares the resultant applied moment with the resultant moment resistance to find the moment utilization ratio for the applied force and moment combination.

The moments of resistance about each axis are given in the output below the respective tables which calculate the moment resistance contribution of each bar for that direction.

# Column interaction diagrams (metric units)

To visually observe the utilization of the design, interaction diagrams can be drawn for individual columns by accessing the interactive design. There are two types of interaction diagrams: "axial force-moment interaction diagrams" and "moment interaction diagrams".

When the dialog is first opened the moment interaction diagram is displayed for the critical parameters, but you can then view the diagram for any analysis method, combination and position. The "Set Critical" button can be used to return to the critical parameters.

## Column axial force-moment interaction diagram

The column axial force - moment interaction diagram is created by fixing the neutral axis rotation so that the neutral axis is perpendicular to the desired direction of moment resistance and varying the depth of the neutral axis. This is done about four orientations, separated by 90°: positive moment resistance in the y-direction; positive moment resistance in the z-direction; negative moment resistance in the y-direction; negative moment resistance in the z-direction.

This method creates a list of points plotted on the interaction diagram for each rotation. Each direction having two lists: one for positive moment resistance and one for negative moment resistance. The failure envelopes created from two lists referring to moments in the same direction (for positive and negative in that direction) are shown in the same colour, a different colour being used for each of the two directions.

The applied values are plotted for all combinations on the same diagram. The points referring to moments in each of the directions are in the same colour as the failure envelope for that direction. Points for both directions are plotted on the same diagram.

In general, the envelope will only be symmetrical for symmetrically reinforced rectangular and circular sections.

## Column moment interaction diagram

The moment interaction diagram is created for a specific axial force, and is used to show the interaction of the applied moments compared to the moment interaction failure envelope. The failure envelope is created by taking many rotations of neutral axis, and calculating the depth for that rotation and axial force. Moments are then taken about the plastic centroid to calculate the moment resistance in each direction.

The moment interaction diagram is calculated for each combination individually, as it is calculated based on the applied axial force which is typically different for each combination.

The resultant moment (of resistance) angle is zero when creating positive moments about the major axis and no moment about the minor axis. For consistency, the neutral axis rotation is zero when it lies parallel with the major axis with compression above the major axis. The resultant moment angle (both applied and resistance) and neutral axis angle are then measured anti-clockwise from this zero position.

The method and convention is the same for columns and walls. The convention is shown graphically above for a column.

The N.A. rotation is that for the calculated NA depth and at which the ratio of moments of resistance equals that of the applied moments for the applied axial force. The design process for biaxial bending is as follows:

For biaxial bending design the method of checking whether the reinforcement in the section is sufficient is to check whether the bending resistance of the section is larger than the applied moment for a given axial force. Tekla Structural Designer therefore calculates the neutral axis position (rotation and depth) at which the ratio of the moment limits in each direction is equal to the ratio of the applied moments and the resultant axial resistance of the section is equal to the applied axial force.

This is done by calculating the neutral axis depth at which the applied axial force would equal the ultimate axial resistance of the section, and calculating the ultimate moment resistance in each direction for this neutral axis depth.

For this calculation the cross-section shown above is effectively rotated so that the neutral axis depth is horizontal - meaning the corner of the column near bar 4 is at the top and the point near bar 2 is at the bottom. The linear strain distribution between these points is then used to calculate the stress in each bar.

If the ratio of the ultimate moment resistance in each direction is not equal to the applied ratio, then Tekla Structural Designer iterates to find the next neutral axis angle "guess" and re-runs the process.

When the final neutral axis angle has been found, the program compares the resultant applied moment with the resultant moment resistance to find the moment utilization ratio for the applied force and moment combination.

The moments of resistance about each axis are given in the output below the respective tables which calculate the moment resistance contribution of each bar for that direction.

# Defining additional column design cases for user defined forces

Additional design cases can be specified in order to for example design for results from Post Tensioning analysis programs. These additional forces are entered per selected stack on the Additional Design Cases page of the dialog. Any number of design cases can be added and are checked alongside regular combinations.

- In the Interactive Column Dialog, select Additional Design Cases tab.
- Click Design Cases to open a dialog in which to add the cases (these belong to the model, so appear for all column stacks and wall panels).
- Click OK to close the Additional Design Cases dialog.
- Make relevant cases Active in the current stack.
- Enter the loading for the Active cases.
- Repeat 4 and 5 for all column stacks where appropriate.